Interesting, a present day assessment by Senator (Ambassador) Armitage, and from another source a historical review of how the radical types got entrenched in the establishment of present day Saudi Arabia. Some tough problems, a long read for lunch-hour but quite historically interesting.
By PATRICK E. TYLER, NYTimes
Extremists are now seeking to exploit the opposition that is growing within Saudi Arabia to the country’s royal family.
The New York Times
Nov 10, 2003
WASHINGTON, Nov. 9 — For years, Osama bin Laden called for the violent overthrow of the Saudi royal family for allowing American bases in the holiest land of Islam.
But with American forces gone, the bombs continue to explode — signaling that the withdrawal did not address the deeper grievances among the hardened Saudi militants who were behind the car bomb attack in Riyadh late on Saturday. Those militants are now seeking to exploit the opposition that is growing within Saudi Arabia to a dynasty long immune to political challenge.
What seems ever more apparent in the attack in Riyadh that left at least 17 people dead and 122 wounded is that it is no longer Americans or even Westerners who are the targets of terrorism in Saudi Arabia, but rather stability itself in the oil-producing kingdom, as well as the writ of the House of Saud.
With targets like government ministries and diplomatic quarters heavily guarded, the bombers may have opted for blowing up a relatively unprotected housing compound associated with Western lifestyles and foreign influence to make their point.
“I think they are after the royal family,” said Wyche Fowler Jr., a former senator who was ambassador to Saudi Arabia from October 1997 to February 2001. “There is a determined fight to rattle the government if not bring it down.”
A prominent Saudi who advises the royal household agreed. “This is an effort to destabilize the regime,” he said. “It’s against the monarchy and it is against the government.”
As such, the terror campaign is merging with the domestic struggle over political reform in the conservative kingdom, where demonstrations against the royal family in Mecca last month showed a new boldness among opposition forces.
Though Saudi officials were quick to blame Al Qaeda for the bombing, it was difficult even for Saudis to distinguish where domestic political opposition ends and the goals of the current terrorist campaign begin. But the danger for the Saudi royal family, analysts said, was that the growing ranks of domestic opponents to the monarchy would adopt the violent tactics of Al Qaeda, or look to its members for leadership.
“I think that is the ultimate concern of the Saudis,” Mr. Fowler said. “I think that is why they are being so thorough to uncover these cells and eliminate them.”
The threat to the royal family has mobilized security forces who have used increasingly aggressive tactics and firepower during the summer to break up terrorist plots and to seize large caches of explosives and ammunition. The tactics have shocked the public in their scale and volume.
To counter both domestic political opposition and the terrorist instinct that courses through dissident mosques, Crown Prince Abdullah, the day-to-day ruler of the royal family, has tried to accelerate some political reforms. But he is offering far less than even the most centrist opponents demand.
Last month, the government announced that elections for municipal offices would be organized next year and, more recently, the crown prince opened for television coverage the deliberations of the consultative assembly, whose members he appoints. While the steps he has taken or talked about draw derisive comments — as in: too little, too late — from Saudi dissidents, the crown prince is regarded as the most reform-minded among the sons of King Abdul Aziz bin Saud, who unified the warring tribes of the Arabia Peninsula and created the Saudi state.
The bombing in Riyadh was the second major strike in the new campaign and the largest attack since those of the mid-1990’s directed at Western and American military targets. It destroyed homes in a compound inhabited mostly by expatriates from other Muslim countries, though some Westerners were among the wounded.
On May 12, a larger and more coordinated assault force set off a series of car bombs in three Riyadh housing complexes whose residents were mostly Saudi, but included American and other foreign workers. The explosions killed 34 people, including 8 Americans and 9 attackers.
“May 12 was the inevitable wake up call,” said Judith Kipper, director of Middle East programs at the Council on Foreign Relations. Since then, as Ms. Kipper pointed out, Saudi security authorities have mobilized a significant campaign under the interior ministry to arrest religious figures who have preached violence and to disrupt the flow of illicit arms to people who would use them for terrorist attacks.
“It’s going to take some time to dig them all out,” she said.
The role of the United States in this struggle may prove to be crucial, analysts said, but the kingdom has come under assault at a time when the Bush administration’s relations with Saudi Arabia have been troubled by two years of recriminations over the prominent role that some Saudis played in the Sept. 11 attacks and the Saudi money that has flowed, wittingly and unwittingly, to organizations and charities connected to terrorist groups.
Last week, President Bush admonished Saudi Arabia and Egypt to take concrete steps toward democracy in a speech widely viewed in the Arab world more as hectoring for domestic effect in the United States than constructive statesmanship abroad.
But it is also true that Mr. Bush was articulating a deeply held view among conservatives in his administration: that American power and influence, recently exercised in Iraq to remove Saddam Hussein, should be used to advance the horizons of democracy, not just to protect American national interest by securing strategic commodities, like the oil resources of the Persian Gulf.
While Crown Prince Abdullah continues to welcome American intelligence in the campaign against terrorism, it is unlikely that the Saudi ruler will want publicly stated advice or assistance on how to conduct political reform from Mr. Bush, whose bluntness lacks the subtleties to which Saudis are accustomed in foreign relations.
In Riyadh on Sunday, Richard L. Armitage, the deputy secretary of state, struck a supportive tone, one that seemed to emphasize American hope than certainty.
“We have the utmost faith,” he said, “that the direction chosen for this nation by Crown Prince Abdullah, the political and economic reforms, will not be swayed by these horrible terrorists.”
A historical Review by Mosque.com:
Many are misled to believe that Wahhabis or Wahhabism are Muslims. Appearing
to follow the teachings of Islam and propagate it, Wahhabis have managed to
deceive the world throughout the past few decades into believing that they
represent the genuine Islamic faith. Even some knowledgeable figures in the
Islamic world were fooled and often bribed to adopt Wahhabism instead of the
pure Islamic faith.
Wahhabism is a particularly austere and radical methodology
that took Islam hostage, and hijacked its principles, in an attempt to mold it
into its own version of so-called “Islam”. Wahhabis camouflaged themselves
through out their short history with the motto of “strictly adhering to the
koran and the teaching of the Prophet”.
Throughout its history, the Wahhabis have fiercely opposed anything they
viewed as bida, an Arabic word for any change or modernization, whether is
deviates or not with the fundamental teachings of the Koran.
The Purpose of this treatise is to refute this false claim of the Wahhabis,
expose their true colors, unmask the deeply kept secrets of their belief, and
draw a contrast between their religion and true Islam.
Wahhabism (a dictatorship backbone)
From its start, Wahhabism and
Wahhabis were instrumental in creating the Saudi monarchy, and if sufficiently
alienated, could tear it down.
For the Saudi ruling family, the Wahhabis form the sole and most vital base
of legitimacy, as well as an unpredictable threat. Since King Abdel Aziz ibn
Saud unified the country in 1932, the royal dynasty has had to balance the
demands of modernization and the intolerance of the Wahhabis, whose antecedents
were vital to the battles that established the kingdom.
Many in the kingdom
view Muhammed bin Abd al-Wahhab (1703-87), the founder of the sect, as the
co-founder of Saudi Arabia, and indeed the royal clan and the religious clan
have long intermarried.
Abdul-Wahhab descendants continue to hold prominent
positions in Saudi Arabia. Being a descendant of the founder naturally
automatically means being a religious zealot. Yet the descendants of the Prophet
Muhammad, are distanced, terrorized and kept away from any public position!!!!!!
While the Saudi rulers essentially owe their power to the Wahhabis, the
followers of Wahhabism have long been a fickle source of support, fiercely loyal
as long as the royals followed Wahhabi ways, ready to turn when they did not.
Wahhabism (a mysterious start and a bloody history)
Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-
Wahhab, the founder of the Wahhabi religious cult, was born in ‘Uyaynah (Najd,
now called Saudi Arabia) in 1703, as a young man traveled widely in other
regions of the Middle East. It was upon his return to ‘Uyaynah that he first
began to preach his deviant views and reformation of the pure Islamic doctrine.
His teaching was almost entirely derived from and influenced by that of the
so-called “Hanbali” heretic philosopher Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah, who had died in
When the preaching of his devious doctrines led to controversy, ‘Abd
al-Wahhab was expelled from ‘Uyaynah in 1744. He then settled in Ad-Dir’iyah,
capital of Ibn Sa’ud, a ruler of the Najd (now Saudi Arabia).
The British Empire blessed the Wahhabi ideology and supported its cause to
fight Muslims in the region, change the ideology from Islamic to Wahhabi, and
try to extinguish and weaken the Islamic State represented by the Ottoman Sultan
in Istanbul. For obvious political and strategical motives, the British
government supplied the Wahhabis with the necessary finances, weapons, and
experts to ensure a successful mission. [refer to Hempher’s memoirs; Confession
of a British Spy]
The spread of Wahhabism originated from the alliance that was formed between
‘Abd al-Wahhab and Ibn Sa’ud, who, by initiating a campaign of bloody and
barbaric conquest that was continued by his heirs, made Wahhabism the dominant
force in Arabia since 1800. By the end of the 18th century, they had brought all
of Najd under their control, attacked Karbala`, Iraq, and the great two holy
cities of Islam, occupied Mecca and Medina in western Arabia. The blood and land
hungry Wahhabis massacred massive masses of innocent Muslims in Iraq, Mecca and
Madina, and utilized collective rape and theft as a weapon of war.
The Islamic State represented by the Ottoman sultan brought an end to the
first Wahhabi empire in 1818, but the sect revived under the leadership of the
Sa’udi Faysal I. The empire was then somewhat restored until once again
destroyed at the end of the 19th century by the Rashidiyah of northern Arabia.
The activities of Ibn Sa’ud in the 20th century eventually led to the creation
of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.
Wahhabism (the Love-Hate relationship with the Jews)
and Jews lived together in the Arabian desert, yet when Islam flourished
throughout the Arabian Peninsula, many Jews converted to Islam, and some left
the peninsula and immigrated to other regions of the world. Most importantly,
some Jews did not want to leave their land and belongings behind, yet they did
not particularly enjoy seeing Islam flourishing and they wanted to help stop its
fast spread. Their only means of causing any harm to Islam was to mask
themselves as Muslims and work from within. The remainder of those Jewish tribes
can be traced to [Najd] the area where Abdul Wahab came from. Those tribes, in
cooperation with other forces such as atheists, Sun worshippers, Idol
worshippers,…. etc. joined forces in conducting a long term covert operation
style to unleash a multi-front multi-scale warfare against Islamic doctrine and
teachings. Some of the intellectual means of that war was to attack and
alter the most sensitive and most sacred core of Islam, that is its essential
doctrine and creed represented by monotheism (Tawheed).
The seeds were planted and it was meticulously and brilliantly engineered so
that those teachings and doctrine do not -at least superficially- contradict the
pure Islamic doctrine and teachings. Moreover, the new doctrine was to appear as
a call for a strict and absolute adherence to Islam, yet it essence it totally
Careful and expert examination of the so-called monotheism (Tawheed)
presented by Wahhabis through out history up until today reveal an entirely
different belief than that of the Koran, the Prophet, and Muslims. It
actually seeks to negate it and invalidate it, causing those who believe it to
unknowingly depart the circle of Islam (according to Islamic jurisprudence). It
negates all and almost every important aspect of monotheism (Tawheed) that the
Prophet of Islam struggled for years to implement.
Further careful examination reveals a distinguished pattern of similarity to
the Torah, and the old Jewish view of monotheism. Furthermore, by going back to
the Torah (the old testament) and reviewing the stated belief in God, one can
come to the definitive realization of the source of the Wahhabi version of
The Wahhabis along with the Saudi family, have exhausted their efforts in
trying to upkeep and isolate all Jewish remains in the Arabian peninsula, while
at the same time viciously destroying the remains of the early Islamic days and
people, examples are demolishing of the graves of the Martyrs of Badr (the first
battle of Islam), demolishing the remains of the houses of some of the
companions of the Prophet, and destroying the signs and graves of the family of
the Prophet. Yet all under the name of Islam!!!!
It is, however, imperative to understand, that the new Wahhabis nowadays –nor
did the old ones- do not view themselves as the carriers of the Jewish articles
of monotheism, nor that they do not present Islam. On the contrary, they see
themselves as the true Muslims, and do not account for any relationship to the
non-Islamic “belief” heritage.
Yet, as questions about the source of the Wahhabi belief have been answered
and definitive, questions that relate the origin of the Saudi family to the Jews
of “Khaybar” and other various Jewish and atheist tribes have not yet been
Wahhabism (exposing their core belief and deviant creed)
creed as many facets where it negate Islam, the first and most important is in
Wahhabis along with the Jews are pure
ANTHROPOMORPHISTS. They deeply believe and propagate anthropomorphism, which in
essence means to liken God to humans.
Wahhabis also believe that most Muslims nowadays are actually infidels,
because the vast majority of Muslims follow the four known Sunni Schools of
Jurisprudence (Fiqh), and their creed aligns with the pure Islamic creed not the
Wahhabi one. Wahhabis claim that if you do not believe in the wahhabi articles
of faith, then you automatically depart the circle of Islam.
How to identify and diagnose and Wahhabi (quick and hard facts)
believe that God is a body (as per Ibn Taymiyyah’s agreement) that resides in
the 7th heaven, and sits on the chair of power that is called throne. Wahhabis
also believe that God consists of real and true limbs, such as real and true
fingers, hands, face, mouth, lips, teeth, eyes, ears, hips, legs, feet, etc.
Furthermore, Wahhabis believe that God comes and goes, descends to earth at
night, and go back up in the morning!!! They also believe that Hell fire will
not be full unless its filled with God’s foot!!!! It is an essential pillar to a
Wahhabi that God resides in a specific place usually above. The examples are
numerous, yet one should know, that Anthropomorphism is considered Blasphemy in
Islam, and those who believe that God resides in a place, time applies to Him,
and that He consists of real true limbs, and that He sits on the Throne, (the
above list)…etc , are not Muslims according to the Koran, Prophet’s teachings,
and the Islamic jurisprudence.
The fact is, likening God to humans, renders the Muslim a blasphemer
Not all people who call themselves Wahhabis or even
follow some Wahhabi School necessarily non-Muslims. Many people who follow them
ignorantly, do not actually believe in all of the articles of Wahhabi faith,
thus they could very well be Muslims.
Only those who believe in articles
that contradict with and negate the Islamic fundamentals of faith, depart the
circle of Islam.
One should not forget that many ignorant Wahhabis have
sincere and honest intentions towards Islam and Muslims. Yet ignorance has
narrowed their minds, and debilitated their thinking.
How does Islam views Monotheism (the correct and pure Tawheed)
the Religion of all the Prophets of Allah starting with Adam and ending with
Muhammad. In Arabic Islam means submission. To believe in the heart and declare
with the tongue: “No one is God except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of
Allah” is how one becomes Muslim. Utterance with the Two Professions
(ashShahadatan) is required of the person who is not already a Muslim. A Muslim
is a believer and a follower of Islam.
The First Profession (ash-Shahadah),
i.e., “No one is God except Allah” means nothing deserves to be worshipped
except Allah. “Allah” is the name of the Creator in Arabic which means “The One
Who has the Godhood which is the power to create the entities.”
The second Profession, i.e., “Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” includes
believing Muhammad was the last of the prophets, he was truthful in all he told
about and conveyed from Allah (as were all the prophets before him), and the
Creator gave us prophets and messengers (A ‘prophet’ is a man who receives the
Revelation from Allah and conveys it to the people. A ‘messenger’ is a prophet
who comes with some new laws. The prophet who is not a messenger follows the
laws of the messenger who came before him. Every messenger is a prophet, but not
every prophet is a messenger.) to guide us to worship Him correctly. A Muslim
must believe in all the prophets and messengers.
The Two Professions are the essentials of belief in Islam; they are the
foundation of the faith. The analogy of constructing a building is useful in
explaining the importance of this basic belief. There will be no building
without a concrete foundation. Likewise, there will be no benefit and fruitful
results in the Hereafter without having the correct belief first.
analogy illustrates the need to start from the beginning and build upward;
before one can remain steadfast in the Religion one must have the proper belief.
Muslims firmly believe only one Creator exists, His name is Allah, and Muhammad
is His Prophet and Messenger. Knowledge and belief in this are the foundation of
the faith, and all Muslims are united by this basic belief. The Muslim uses the
mind as a guide because the mind and faith go hand-in-hand. Knowledge is
essential since learning gives one strength and purpose.
The sound intellect and the explicit statements revealed to Prophet Muhammad
affirm the belief in God, His existence, and His attributes. One must understand
that Allah is not His attributes nor is He other than them. For example: One can
say: “Allah has the attribute of power” but one cannot say: “Allah is power.”
God has no faults or weaknesses. He, the Exalted, is flawless. His attributes
are without flaw and are unchanging. God does not resemble any of His (Note: The
word ‘He’ or ‘His’ when used in reference to Allah must not be understood to
represent gender. Allah created male and female, and He does not resemble any of
His creation.) creation. Intellectively, if Allah resembled any of His creation,
He would be susceptible to the same things the creation are susceptible. If He
were susceptible, as the creations are, He would be weak and created#as they
are#and this is impossible. Allah is without shape, without form, and without
limitations. He does not resemble anything man sees in the universe or anything
he can imagine#since imagination is part of the creation.
Allah exists. Without comparing Allah to the creation one can use mental
evidences to prove the existence of the Creator. When one sees a building, one
knows there is a builder; when one sees a painting, one knows there is a
painter; when one sees the creation, one knows there is a Creator. Allah is the
Creator. Allah exists without a place because He always existed and He created
all the places. Allah existed eternally and place did not, and Allah exists now
as He has been, i.e., without residing in a place, whether this place is skies,
Earth, Paradise, Hell, or any other place in the six directions. Allah does not
change. Change is a sign of need and need is non-befitting to attribute to God.
Allah is perfect. If something changes for the bad, it is no longer perfect, and
if it changes for the good, it was not perfect to begin with. Therefore, Allah
does not change. He is not in Heaven. He is not in everyone. He is not every
where. He does not occupy a space now, He never did, and He never will. Allah
exists without a place.
Allah is one; He is indivisible, i.e., He is not a body. Allah has no
partner, no counterpart, no wife, no son. Intellectively, this is understood
because if there were two partners and one partner willed for one thing to be
and the other partner willed the opposite thing#we know opposites do not happen
simultaneously#so the one who willed what did not occur is weak. Weakness is
non-befitting to attribute to God; therefore, there is only one God. For the
same reason, the Devil does not have control over God and evil occurs because
Allah willed it. There is a wisdom behind everything#even if we do not know the
Allah has no beginning to His existence. Anything that has a beginning is
creation. Allah created every creation, every movement, every rest, every
thought, every intention. To have a beginning is a sign of need, and Allah is
not in need. Allah has no end to His existence. To have an end is weakness; the
Creator is not weak.
Allah does not need any of His creation. To need
something means to be unable to perform without it, and this is weakness. The
Creator is not weak#it is impossible to be among His attributes. Allah has the
attribute of power by which He affects the creation. He makes them exist and He
Allah has the attribute of Will. Whatever Allah willed to be shall be and
whatever Allah did not will to be shall not be. Both good and evil happen
according to God’s will.
Allah has the attribute of knowledge. Allah knows everything: what has
happened, what is happening, and what will happen.
Allah hears all hearable
things and Allah sees all seeable things without organs and without limitations.
Man needs ears and air to transfer sound in order to hear and light in order to
see. Allah does not need any of the creation. Allah, with His eternal kalam,
orders the obligations, forbids the prohibitions, promises the reward of
Paradise, and threatens the punishment of Hellfire without instruments, letters,
languages, or sounds.
Allah has the attribute of life because he who is dead cannot be attributed
with knowledge, will, power, and consequently, cannot create. Allah’s life is
not like ours. We need flesh, bones, blood, and spirit. Allah created all these;
His life is not in need of any of them.
Allah created all the creation, and this includes the Religion of
Islam#which is the only valid and true Religion. Islam began among humans with
the first man, Adam, who was the first prophet and messenger, and Islam
continued through many prophets, some of which were also messengers. All the
prophets and messengers taught “No one is God except Allah” and to believe in
and follow the prophet and messenger of their time. All the Prophets taught
there is only one God, the aforementioned attributes of Allah, and the
attributes of the prophets. They called the people to Islam, taught them how to
worship Allah properly, and conveyed what Allah ordered and what Allah forbid.
The prophets had miracles to support their claim of Prophethood and to prove to
the people what they were teaching was the truth. Some of the rules changed from
one messenger to another but the belief remained the same. The messengers came
with new laws. For example: at the time of Adam, Muslims used to pray once per
day. They were ordered to pray twice per day at the time of Prophet ^Isa. Now,
according to the rules of the last Messenger#Prophet Muhammad#Muslims pray
five times per day. In previous laws of the messengers, Muslims were ordered to
pray in specific places. Now, in the rules revealed to Prophet Muhammad, Muslims
are not required to pray in specific places.
Allah blessed the people with the prophets and messengers to guide them to
obedience and warn them from disobedience. Muslims must believe in all the
prophets and messengers because Allah blessed them all with Revelation and they
conveyed this to their people, but now Muslims must follow the rules of the last
Prophet and Messenger, Prophet Muhammad.
Allah ordered the Messengers to convey the laws, and they did. They taught by
words and example. The prophets were attributed with truthfulness,
trustworthiness, and intelligence. Consequently, lying, dishonesty, vileness,
stupidity, and dullness were impossible to be among their attributes. They were
also attributed with impeccability of blasphemy (Blasphemy includes any belief,
action, or saying which belittles Allah, His Books, His Messengers, His Angels,
His Rites, the Ma^alim of His Religion, His Rules, His Promise, or His Threat.),
the great sins (such as drinking alcohol and unjust killing), and abject small
sins (such as stealing one grape).
Prophet Muhammad taught his Companions and those Companions taught their
followers and so on until the knowledge of Islam reached the Muslims of the
present day. The beliefs and teachings were passed from trustworthy Muslim
(‘Trustworthy’ as defined by Islam means the Muslim who does not commit great
sins, small sins in a way that they will be more than this good deeds, and does
not behave in violation of the behavior of those who have his status.) to
trustworthy Muslim with a chain of reliable relaters back to the Prophet. In
Islam it is a great sin to judge without knowledge. If a Muslim does not know an
answer to an Islamic inquiry he must not give his opinion or what he thinks the
answer might be. Instead, he seeks the answer from someone more knowledgeable in
the Religion who attained the knowledge in the aforementioned manner.
Since Allah created Adam, the first man, from soil of different colors and
different textures, and all people are the descendants of Adam, this accounts
for the various races and temperaments of people. Muslim men and women around
the world of all ages, races, colors, nationalities, social backgrounds,
economic status’, languages, and political affiliations are united by their
belief that there is only one God, His name is Allah, and Muhammad is His last
Prophet and Messenger and by practicing the same rules of the Religion.
Islam is a belief system as well as a way of life. Only the Creator knows the
limits, the weakness, and the vulnerability of all His creation, and He has
provided rules for them that are fair and just. Allah knows what is good for His
creation as well as what is harmful; He knows what is beneficial and what is
Further Proof that God exists without a place (contrary to the Wahhabis)
The saying that Allah, ta^ala, exists without a place is the belief and the
creed of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam, the
Companions and those who graciously followed them, and it shall be until the Day
of Judgment. The proof of this precious statement is what Allah said in the
Koran, in Surat ash-Shura, ayah 11: which means: “There is nothing like Him and
He has the attribute of Hearing and Seeing.” This ayah absolutely and totally
clears Allah of resembling the creation. It comprises that Allah, ta^ala, is
different from the creations in the Self, Attributes, and Doings. Hence, it
shows that Allah, ta^ala, exists without a place, because the one who exists in
a place would, by nature, be composed of atoms, i.e., he would be a body,
occupying a space, and Allah, ta^ala, is clear of occupying spaces.
Al-Bukhariyy, al-Bayhaqiyy and Ibn alJarud related that the Messenger of
Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam, said: “Allah existed eternally
and there was nothing else.” This hadith proves that Allah was alone
in al-‘azal, (the status of existence without a beginning,) i.e., before
creating any of the creation. There was nothing with Him: no place, no space, no
sky, no light, and no darkness. It is determined in the rules of the Religion
and the judgments of the sound mind that Allah, the Exalted, does not change.
Hence, it is impossible that after having been existing without a place, He
would become in a place, because this is a development, and the development is a
sign of needing others, and the one who needs others is not God.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadiyy related in his book, Al-Farqu Bayn alFiraq,
that Imam ^Aliyy, Karramallahu wajhahu, said: “Allah existed eternally and there
was no place, and He now is as He was, i.e., without a place.”
Hanifah, who is one of the authorities of as-Salaf, said in his book Al-Fiqh
alAbsat: “Allah existed eternally and there was no place. He existed before
creating the creation. He existed, and there was no place, creation, or thing;
and He is the Creator of everything.”
Imam al-Hafidh al-Bayhaqiyy said in his book, Al-Asma’u was-Sifat, on page
400: “…. What was mentioned towards the end of the hadith is an indication of
denying Allah has a place and denying the slave is alike to Allah, wherever he
was in proximity or remoteness. Allah, the Exalted, is adhDhahir#hence, it is
valid to know about Him by proofs. Allah is al-Batin#hence, it is invalid that
He would be in a place.” He also said: “Some of our companions used as a proof
to refute the place to Allah the saying of the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa
aalihi wa sallam : ‘You are adh-Dhahir and there is nothing above You, and You
are al-Batin and there is nothing underneath You.’ Therefore, if there is
nothing above Him and nothing underneath Him, He is not in a place.”
Imam Ahmad Ibn Salamah, Abu Ja^far atTahawiyy, who was born in the year 237
after Hijrah, wrote a book called Al-^Aqidah atTahawiyyah. He mentioned that the
content of his book is an elucidation of the creed of Ahl asSunnah wal Jama^ah,
which is the creed of Imam Abu Hanifah, who died in the year 150 after alHijrah,
and his two companions, Imam Abu Yusuf al-Qadi and Imam Muhammad Ibn alHasan
ash-Shaybaniyy and others. He said in his book: “Allah is supremely clear of all
boundaries, extremes, sides, organs and instruments. The six directions do not
contain Him#these are attributed to all created things.” Such is the saying of
Imam Abu Ja^far who is among the heads of as-Salaf. He explicitly stated that
Allah is clear of being contained by the six directions. The six directions are
above, below, in front of, behind, right, and left.
The linguist and scholar of hadith, Imam Muhammad Murtada az-Zabidiyy,
narrated by a continuous chain from himself back to Imam Zayn al-^Abidin ^Aliyy
Ibn al-Husayn Ibn ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, (who was among the first of as-Salaf,
who earned the title of as-Sajjad, i.e., the one who prays a lot), that Zayn
al-^Abidin said in his treatise asSahifah as-Sajjadiyyah about Allah: “O Allah,
You are clear of all imperfection. You are Allah, the One Who no place contains
You.” He also said: “O Allah, You are clear of all imperfection. You are Allah,
the One Who is not in boundaries.”
In the explanation of al-Bukhariyy in the chapter on Al-Jihad, Hafidh Ibn
Hajar said: “The fact that the two directions above and below are impossible to
be attributes of Allah, does not necessitate that Allah would not be attributed
with aboveness, because attributing aboveness to Allah is a matter of status and
the impossibility lies in it being physical.”
Imam Abul-Qasim ^Aliyy Ibnul-Hasan Ibn Hibatillah Ibn ^Asakir said in his
^Aqidah: “Allah existed before the creation. He does not have a before or an
after, an above or a below, a right or a left, an in front of or a behind, a
whole or a part. It must not be said when was He, where was He, or how was He.
He exists without a place.”
Know beyond doubt that the question ‘how’ does not apply to Allah, because
this is a question about shapes, bodies, places, depths and dimensions; Allah is
clear of all of that. Also be firm that it is invalid to say about Allah “…
but we do not know how”, because in essence, it falsely indicates that Allah has
a color, shape, dimensions, body, place, but one is ignorant of the ‘how’ of it.
Imam al-Ghazaliyy said: ” Allah, the Exalted, existed eternally and there was
no place. He is not a body, jawhar (atom), or property, and He is not on a place
or in a place.”
All of these sayings show that attributing the sensuous physical aboveness
and place to Allah is contrary to the Koran, the Hadith, the Ijma^, and the
intellectual proof. The intellectual proof that Allah exists without a place
lies in the fact that the one who is in a place would have an area, and the one
who has an area is in need of it, and the one who needs others is not God.
Moreover, as the mind determines that Allah existed without a place before
creating places, the mind determines that after Allah created the places He
still exists without a place.
The scholars like Imam Ahmad arRifa^iyy determined that lifting the hands and
the faces towards the sky when performing du^a (supplication) is because the
heavens are the qiblah of du^a just as the Ka^bah is the qiblah of asSalah. From
the heavens, the mercies and blessings of Allah descend.
Hence, it is clear for the one who seeks the truth that the saying that Allah
exists without a place is what complies with the Koran, the Hadith, the Ijma^,
and the criteria of the sound intellect. Be firm and certain that before
creating places, Allah Who created everything (places and others), existed
without a place, and after creating places, He still exists without a place.
Since we have determined that the creed of the Muslims is that Allah exists
without a place and that the question ‘how’ does not apply to Allah, it is clear
to us that al-^arsh (the throne) which is the biggest of the creations of Allah
and the ceiling of Paradise, is not a place for Allah, the Exalted.
Imam Abu Mansur al-Baghdadiyy related that Imam ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, the
fourth caliph, may Allah’s peace be upon him, said:
which means: “Allah
created al-^arsh as an indication of His Power and did not take it as a place
Also, in his book, Al-Fiqh al-Absat, Imam Abu Hanifah said:
“Allah existed eternally and there was no place; He existed before creating the
creation. He existed and there was not a place, a creation or a thing; and He is
the Creator of everything. He who says ‘I do not know if my Lord is in the
heavens or on the earth,’ is a kafir. Also is a kafir whoever says that ‘He is
on al-^arsh, and I do not know whether al-^arsh is in the heaven or on the
Consequently, Imam Ahmad declared a kafir whomever says these last two
phrases because they contain attributing a direction, boundary, and place to
Allah. Everything which has a direction and boundary is by necessity in need of
a Creator. Thus it is not the intention of Imam Abu Hanifah to prove that the
heaven and al-^arsh are places for Allah, as those who liken Allah to the
creation claim. This is by virtue of the aforementioned saying of the Imam: “Had
He been in a place needing to sit and rest, then before creating al-^arsh where
was Allah?”, which is clear in negating that Allah has a direction or a place.
In his book, Ihya’u ^Ulum ad-Din, Imam alGhazaliyy said: “… places do not
contain Him, nor do the directions, earth, or heavens. He is attributed with an
istiwa’ over al-^arsh as He said in the Koran#with the meaning that He
willed#and not as what people may delude. It is an istiwa’ which is clear of
touching, resting, holding, moving and containment. Al-^arsh does not carry Him,
but rather al-^arsh and those that carry al-^arsh are all carried by Allah with
His Power and are subjugated to Him.
He is above al-^arsh and above the heavens and above everything# in status#
an aboveness that does not give Him proximity to al-^arsh or the heavens as it
does not give Him farness from earth. He is higher in status than everything:
higher in status than al-^arsh and the heavens, as He is higher in status than
earth and the rest of the creation. ”
Anthropomorphists (Al-Mushabbihah) are those who liken Allah to the creation;
they believe Allah resembles the creation. They attribute to Allah places,
directions, shapes, and bodies, and they try to camouflage it by saying:
“However, we do not know how His place is, or how He is sitting, or how His face
is, or how His shin is, or how his light is.” All of that does not clear them of
Wahhabism (Under new management/ change of name)
In the late 20th century
people have become more aware and alert to the false claims of the Wahhabis, and
started to distinguish Muslims from Wahhabis.
Hence, in another effort to lure Muslims and others, Wahhabis ceased to use
the name Wahhabis or Wahhabism, and started heavily propagating their cult as “
Salafis” or Assalafiyyah. Many other new names have evolved meanwhile, such as
Ahlul Hadeeth, Ahlul Koran was-Sunnah, Al Muwahhidoon, etc. These are all
different names for the same poison.
Salafis is the one name that attracted people most since the word salafi in
the Arabic language means “early Muslim”, and in traditional Islamic scholarship
means someone who died within the first three hundred years after the Prophet,
including scholars such as Abu Hanifa, Malik, Shafi’i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
Anyone who died after this is one of the khalaf or “latter-day Muslims”.
The “ under new management” Wahhabi sect cunningly presented its basic claim
and that is: “that the religion had not been properly understood by anyone since
the Prophet (sallahu alayhi wa aalihi wa sallam) and the early Muslims—and, of
Wahhabism (the current Wahhabis and their ideology)
The new and nicely
presented claim, along with new generations of Wahhabis that were raised to
blindly believe in Wahhabism, young Wahhabi researchers found themselves out of
publicity if they do not show a genuine interest in the Muslim population every
where and present an ideology suited to the modern thinking while maintaining
the core principles of the Wahhabi creed.
In terms of ideals, the new
movement advocated a return to a shari’a-minded orthodoxy that would purify
Islam from unwarranted accretions, the criteria for judging which would be the
Koran and hadith. Now, these ideals are noble, and I don’t think anyone would
disagree with their importance. The only points of disagreement are how these
objectives are to be defined, and how the program is to be carried out. As for
its validity, one may note that the Salafi approach is an interpretation of the
texts of the Koran and sunna, or rather a body of interpretation, and as such,
those who advance its claims are subject to the same rigorous criteria of the
Islamic sciences as anyone else who makes interpretive claims about the Koran
and sunna; namely, they must show:
1. That their interpretations are acceptable in terms of Arabic language;
2. That they have exhaustive mastery of all the primary texts that relate to
each question, and
3. That they have full familiarity of the methodology of
usul al-fiqh or “fundamentals of jurisprudence” needed to comprehensively join
between all the primary texts.
Only when one has these qualifications can one legitimately produce a valid
interpretive claim about the texts, which is called ijtihad or “deduction of
shari’a” from the primary sources. Without these qualifications, the most one
can legitimately claim is to reproduce such an interpretive claim from someone
who definitely has these qualifications; namely, one of those unanimously
recognized by the Umma as such since the times of the true salaf, at their
forefront the mujtahid Imams of the four madhhabs or “schools of jurisprudence”.
What comes to many peoples minds these days when one says “Salafis” is
bearded young men arguing about din. The basic hope of these youthful reformers
seems to be that argument and conflict will eventually wear down any resistance
or disagreement to their positions, these young men maybe misguided, and if they
truly believe in resembling Allah to His creation, then they certainly depart
Islam. Good and sincere intentions do not count, as one should learn and know,
who he/she worships. Many young Wahhabis are misled to believe that they are
right and are going to Heaven, while everybody else is going to Hellfire, and
unless you follow their school, then you’re deemed to perish.
The fact is that there is a large fictional element involved when someone
comes to the Muslims and says, “No one has understood Islam properly except the
Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) and early Muslims, and our sheikh”.
This is not valid, for the enduring works of first-rank Imams of hadith,
jurisprudence, Koranic exegesis, and other shari’a disciplines impose upon
Muslims the obligation to know and understand their work, in the same way that
serious comprehension of any other scholarly field obliges one to have studied
the works of its major scholars who have dealt with its issues and solved its
questions. Without such study, one is doomed to repeat mistakes already made and
rebutted in the past.
Most of us have acquaintances among this Umma who hardly acknowledge another
scholar on the face of the earth besides the Imam of their madhhab, the Sheikh
of their Islam, or some contemporary scholar or other. And this sort of
enthusiasm is understandable, even acceptable (at a human level) in a
non-scholar. But only to the degree that it does not become taassub or bigotry,
meaning that one believes one may put down Muslims who follow other qualified
scholars. At that point it is haram, because it is part of the sectarianism
(tafarruq) among Muslims that Islam condemns.
When one gains Islamic knowledge and puts fiction aside, one sees that
superlatives about particular scholars such as “the greatest” are untenable;
that each of the four schools of classical Islamic jurisprudence has had many
many luminaries. To imagine that all preceding scholarship should be evaluated
in terms of this or that “Great Reformer” is to ready oneself for a big letdown,
because intellectually it cannot be supported.
Wahhabism (their approach and sources compared with Sunni Muslims )
from the environment of accusations and noise, one can easily point out the
intellectual differences between Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jam’a, and Wahhabis in their
sources and approach in regards to the Koran, Hadith, and Scholars.
addition to the differences in the core essentials of belief, we can quickly
enumerate some of the other aspects of conflict between Ahlus Sunnah and
Where Ahus Sunnah further differ with “Salafis/Wahhabis” is in the promotion
by the latter of a handful of controversial scholars/philosophers as supposedly
representing all of Islamic scholarship after the time of the true Salaf. They
praise and advertise these controversial scholars over and above the
established, non-controversial Ahlus Sunnah scholars of the intervening
centuries. These few controversial scholars are:
– Ibn Taymiyya (a
philosopher) and his student Ibn al-Qayyim
– Ibn `Abd al-Wahhab and his
– Bin Baz, bin Uthaymeen, Albani, and their propagandists
– People in the Unites States, such as Bilal Philips, Jamal Zarabozo, some
of the faculty of the American Open University,
Umar Al-Ashqar, and lots of Mosques and Islamic centers across the
The most definitive proof that the “SalafisWahhabis” are the
most distant of people to the pious Salaf lies in the following five fundamental
aspects of Salafi ideology:
· Anthropomorphism of Allah’s attributes:
affirming a place, direction, and corporeal limbs for Allah Almighty Who is far
exalted above all of those;
· Disrespect of the Prophet, blessings and peace
· An amateurish, egalitarian approach to Koran and hadith (no need
for scholars, or mastery of Arabic, or ijaza # traditional accreditation, or
the Islamic sciences);
· Hatred of the Four Sunni schools of Law (the Four
madhahib), the Two Schools of doctrine (Ash`aris and Maturidis), and all the
schools of self-purification (Tasawwuf);
· The practice of takfir: declaring
other Muslims unbelievers.
Wahhabism (their spread in the Islamic world and in Europe and the United
The spread of Wahhabism was extremely limited in the other than Najd
(eastern part of what is called now Saudi Arabia). Especially to countries like
Egypt, Syria, and the north African Arab countries. Yet, in the past few
decades, the Saudi government took a new measures in fighting Islam.
1- The oil rich kingdom imported intellectuals and scholars from all over the
Islamic world, offered them safety and salary and exerted tremendous influence
on them to adopt or at least move closer to the Wahhabi view. Those who didn’t
participate in the game were silenced.
2- The Wahhabi/Saudi money went to
the old and classical centers that teach Muslim scholars and export them to the
world, such as the Azhar University, the Islamic Faculty in Damascus, Schools in
India, etc. The money was given to certain people who are the decision
makes, knowingly or ignorantly, they have been successful in controlling a lot
of what those schools had to offer and the quality of their graduates.
Wahhabis, established their own Universities, that attracted people from all
over the world. Among the attractions are living close to the Holy cities,
getting paid to study Islamic Jurisprudence(which is actually Wahhabi
These moves resulted in controlling the flow of true pious and traditional
knowledgeable Sunni Scholars, and in effect, generated many Wahhabi leaders and
exported them to the World.
Even though this resulted in reduced flow of Sunni Scholars, yet the damage
was most seen in countries like the United States, where many of the Mosques
were established initially by or with the financial and logistic help of the
Wahhabis . If you visit most of the Mosques and Islamic centers in North
America, you will find the books of the spiritual leader of Wahhabis, Ibn
Taymiyyah and his derivatives every where!!!!
A word of Warning
From the preceding presentation of the “Salafi/Wahhabi”
movement’s deviant beliefs, insha Allah there should not remain even the
slightest inkling of a doubt in the mind of the sincere reader about that
movement’s deviant nature and falsehood. It is only the ignorant, grossly
biased, and dishonest sympathizers of the group that will maintain the view that
the group’s teachings and beliefs are in accordance with the Koran and Sunnah,
since it has been clearly and decisively proven to be just the exact opposite.
END OF NINO
A Demonstration that the Wahhabis are Khawarij (heretics of this era)
taken from the book
‘Ihya al-Maqbur’ pages 59-60.
by the late Muhaddith of the Age, the
Faqeeh of the Era
Imam Abu’l-Fayd Ahmad ibn Abi Abdallah al-Siddiq al-Ghumari al-Hasani,
author of 143 books and the known scholar of Morocco, may Allah bless his
As for the Qarniyyun (those of the Devil’s Horn), their land has not been
blessed by Allah with any wali or salih since the beginning of Islam down to the
present day. Instead, he only gave it the Qarn al-Shaytan [‘the Devil’s Horn’],
whose followers were the Khawarij of the thirteenth and subsequent Islamic
centuries. So fear God, and do not be like he who is beguiled by them, and
supports their corrupt sect and worthless opinion, and their state of
misguidance which was explicitly described by the Prophet (upon whom be
blessings and peace), who characterized them as the ‘Dogs of the Fire’ [kilab
al-nar], and informed us that they are the ‘worst of all who dwell beneath the
sky’, and that they ‘swerve from the religion as an arrow swerves away from its
target,’ and that they mouth among the best of sayings in the form of
their prattling about Tawhid, and implementing the Sunna, and combating bid’as –
and yet, by Allah, they are drowning in bid’a; in fact, there is no bid’a worse
than theirs, which causes them to ‘swerve from the religion as an arrow swerves
away from its target’, in spite of their superficial efforts in worship and
adherence to the religion. It is as the Prophet (upon whom be blessings and
peace) declared: ‘one of you would despise the prayer he says among them, and
the fasting he completes with them; they recite Koran but it goes no further
than their collarbones.’
It is for this reason that he refrained (upon him be blessings and peace)
from making du’a for Najd in the way that he had prayed for the Yemen and for
Syria, for he said: ‘Allahumma bless us in our Yemen; bless us in our Syria’ –
and they said, ‘And in our Najd, o Messenger of Allah?’ (upon him be blessings
and peace), but he repeated his prayer for the Yemen and for Syria; and they
repeated their utterance; until he said, the second or the third time round, in
order to explain why he would not pray for Najd:
‘That is the place of earthquakes, and fitnas, and from it the Devil’s Horn
shall rise.’ [Narrated by Bukhari.] And nothing has emerged from there to bring
about earthquakes and fitnas in the religion like Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab,
who was astray and led others astray. Hence he was the Devil’s Horn foretold by
the Messenger (upon him be blessings and peace), and he abstained from offering
prayer for Najd because of him, and because of the fitnas which would flow from
his demonic da’wa. Whoever adheres to that da’wa has committed unambiguous kufr,
and is destined for apostasy and ‘swerving from the religion’, as is visible in
the case of the other mulhids [heretical unbelievers] of the age who are
notorious for their ilhad, for in every case they began by holding fast to the
sect of the Devil’s Horn, as is well-known to scholars of experience and
Wa-salla’Llahu ‘ala sayyidina Muhammadin wa-‘ala alihi wa-sahbihi
kullama dhakaru a-dhakirun wa-ghafala ‘an dhikrihi al-ghafilun.
So, what will happen to Islam if Wahabis of Saudi
Arabia, Muslim Brotherhood (ikhwan) and Ben Laden’s fanaticism go away?
A Warning to Muslims against the Bid’ahs preached by
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdi-l-Wahhab
By Shaykh Abdul Hadi
Palazzi and Zubair Qamar
Praised by Allah, Lord of the worlds, and blessing and peace upon the best of
His creatures, the Prophet Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdi-Llah, upon his noble family, his
pure wives, his purified Sahabahs and upon all those who follow his path till
the Day of resurrection. This paper has been compiled by Shaykh Abdul Hadi
Palazzi, Director of the Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community and
by Zubair Qamar as a mean to seek Allah’s favor and as a warning against the
founder of the heretic Wahhabi-Salafi cult and against the bid’ahs he preached.
May Allah save this Ummah from bid’ahs and dalalah, and preserve us on the right
path followed by Asyaduna al-akramin. Amin.
Rasul-Ullah (S) said:”Allahumma,
bless Yemen, Allahumma, bless Sham.” He was asked: “And what about Najd?” He
answered: “From Najd Shaytan’s horn will rise.”
He (S) also said: “Beware of
Shaykhu-n-Najdi, since he is Shaytan.”
He (S) also said: “There will be
people who come from the eastern side of Arabia who will recite Koran, but their
recitation will not pass beyond their collarbones. They will go out of Islam as
swiftly as the arrow goes through the prey. Their sign is shaving their heads.”
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdi-l-Wahhab was a descendent of the Bani Tamim tribe and was
born in the Uyaynah village (Najd) in 1111 H. (1699 M.). His father was a learnt
Hanbali scholar, and sent him to study tafsir, fiqh and tasawwuf in Mecca,
Medina, Baghdad, Basrah and Damascus, as well as in Iran and India. His
attitude, from the beginning, was very much polemic, and he took active part in
scholarly debates. During this period, he received the surname
“Shaykhu-n-Najdi”. He contacted many Shaykhs of tasawwuf, and tried his best to
be appointed as a khalifah. This request of his, however, was not accepted,
since the Shaykhs realized he was too must influenced by kibr and by the desire
to become a leader.
At the age of thirty-two he came back to Najd and
started working as a teacher for Bedouins; he also started exercising ijtihad,
and accusing Sunni scholars and Ahlu-t-tasawwuf of bid’ahs. In 1143 H. (1730 M.)
he met a leader of a gang of marauders called Muhammad Ibn Sa’ud, whose main
activity was plundering travelers in the desert of Najd. Since most of those
Bedouins living in Dar’iyyah were completely unlearnt, Ibn ‘Abdi-l-Wahhab could
easily convict them of his theories; Ibn Sa’ud and him made an agreement,
according to which the former was appointed as the “Amir”, and the latter as the
“Shaykh”. The “Shaykh declared he was ready to publish “fatwahs” where
non-Wahhabi Muslims were described as apostates and idol-worshippers; this point
of view obviously represented a sort of “religious justification” for Ibn
Sa’ud’s gang. They were not, anymore, robbers and criminals, but “mujahids”,
authorized to kill “kuffars”, to plunder their properties and to rape their
The “Shaykh” also appointed some “wakils” and send them to preach
Wahhabism in Mecca, but scholars living in the Blessed City were ready in
understanding how dangerous this doctrine was. Sayyid Ahmad Zayni Dahlan
as-Shaf’i (D) was the Chief Mufti of Mecca. In wrote in the book
“To deceive the ‘ulemas in Mecca and Medina,
those people sent emissaries in al-Haramayn, but these missionaries were not
able to answer questions asked by Sunni scholars. It became evident that
they were ignorant bid’ah holders. Muftis of the four madhhabs wrote a fatwah
that declared them kuffars, and this document was distributed in the whole
Jazirah. The Amir of Mecca, Sharif Mas’ud Ibn Sa’id, ordered that the Wahhabis
should be imprisoned. Some Wahhabis fled to Dar’iyyah and informed their leader
of what was happening.”
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdi-l-Wahhab’s brother, Sulayman Ibn
‘Abdi-l-Wahhab (D), studied his works and tried his best to invite him to
tawbah. At least, when he realized verbal admonitions had no effect, decided to
write a book called “As-Sawa’iqu-l-Ilahiyyah fi-r-Raddi ‘ala-l-Wahhabiyyah”. It
contains a detailed refutation of his brother’s heresies, and states:
of the dalils showing that your path is heretic is the hadith sharif narrated by
‘Uqbah Ibn Amir and collected in the Sahihayn [Bukhari and Muslim]: ‘Rasul-Ullah
(S) ascended the minbar, and it was the last time I saw him on the minbar. He
said: ‘I do not fear that you will become mushrikuns after me, but I fear that,
because of worldly interests, you will fight each others, and thus be destroyed
like the peoples of old.’
The Messenger of Allah (S) foretold all that would
happen to his Ummah until the end of the world. This hadith sharif shows that he
was certain of the fact that this Ummah will never worship idols. By saying so,
he destroys Wahhabism from its roots, since Wahhabi books say that Ummah
al-Muhammadiyyah is involved in polytheism, that Muslim countries are full of
idols, and that Muslim graves are houses of shirk. They also claim that someone
who does not accept to consider mushrikuns those who ask for intercession by the
graves is himself a kafir. On the contrary, Muslims have been visiting graves
and asking for the intercession of awliyas for centuries. No Islamic scholar has
even called such Muslims mushrikuns.
“My brother asks: ‘A hadith sharif
says: “Of all that will befall you, shirk is what I fear more.” Is not this a
dalil of the fact that a part of this Ummah will be engaged in shirk?’
say: It is inferred by many other hadiths that this hadith refers to
shirku-l-asghar. There are similar hadiths, narrated by Shaddad Ibn ‘Aws, Abu
Hurayrah and Mahmud Ibn Labid (may Allah be pleased with all of them), according
to which the Prophet (S) feared that shirku-l-asghar would be committed by his
Ummah. It has exactly happened as it was foretold in the hadith, and many
Muslims are guilty of shirku-l-asghar. But you, in your ignorance, confuse
shirku-l-asghar with shirku-l-akbar, and the tragic consequence of this mistake
of yours is that you regard as ‘unbelievers’ those Muslims that do not accept to
call other Muslims ‘unbelievers’.”
Another contemporary scholar, Muhammad